2. That’s also the main electrical differentiator. And since we’re usually talking about AC power, it doesn’t matter if the load is on the Line or N side of things – as long as there is a load somewhere in the circuit that is being energized, it will not be a short.
If a circuit gets a short, there will be no load in the path to slow down the flow of electrons, and that will cause some kind of open condition usually very quickly.
4. It’s basically a truism about current, and the definition of a shunt.